eINDIA 2012 :: m-Governance for Effective Public Service Delivery in India

eINDIA Track: eGov

Title of Paper: m-Governance for Effective Public Service Delivery in India

Author Name: Colonel (Rtd) Jagdish Jamwal
Email: coljjamwal@gmail.com
Designation: Advisor Urban Governance
Organization: ASCI
Address:  India Bella Vista, Raj Bhawan Road, Hyderabad, India
Zip: 500082

Abstract:

Introduction- Governments around the world have long recognized the need and potential of ICTs to make government services available to all the residents. As a result, e-Governance has emerged as a popular phenomenon to deliver government services around the world. However, e-Governance in an implementation sense is restricted primarily to the use of computer based internet access to deliver services. In India where the penetration of computers and internet is relatively low particularly in rural areas, there is an apprehension that the reach of e-Governance may be limited. The limited reach of e-Governance has made governments think of new technologies, such as mobile phones, to reach the residents and deliver public services. This phenomenon has been driven primarily by the rapid growth of mobile phone subscribers in several developing countries. India, with its more than 900 million mobile phone subscribers offers a unique proposition to develop into mobile digital society; particularly in relation to the delivery of public services to its population. While e -government is usually defined as the conventional government services made available for all users through electronic means, mobile government or m-government is focussed on the overall strategy and processes for delivering various public services through all kinds of wireless and mobile technologies to all users, including residents, government departments and businesses. Penetration of Mobile Phones The growth of mobile phones subscribers in India over the last decade has been explosive and the scenario has completely changed now with over 900 million mobile phones subscribers in the country and the mobile teledensity is 65%. Out of the total mobile subscribers, the share of rural subscribers is 350 million, amounting 35% and the rural mobile teledensity is 32% whereas the same for urban areas is 140%. Wide access to mobile phones in the country has made it an ideal platform for Government to resident interface, especially in the rural areas. Imperatives of Citizen Engagement There is now a greater consensus that citizen participation and civic engagement are the building blocks for good governance and m-Governance is a critical component of good governance. Also, as the government is considering enacting the Electronic Service Delivery Law, the possibility of m-Government projects becoming pervasive in all domains of public services is increasingly becoming a reality. It marks a paradigm shift in delivery of public and essential services – from human to technology based interfaces. The use of mobile technology interface for delivery of services throws up many challenges especially those related to management of change from human interface to technology interface, adoption of a particular technology, differential access to such services etc.

Objectives of m- Governance: The broad objectives of the m-governance can be achieved by:

1. Building an enabling mobile service delivery infrastructure consisting of a Mobile Service Delivery Gateway (MSDG) that is fully integrated with the existing infrastructure. 2. Formulate relevant standards for applications for m-governance to ensure seamless interoperability of services across multiple service providers and multiple Government departments and agencies.
3. Develop an appropriate regulatory regime for m-governance to ensure proper coordination among multiple stakeholders, ensure compliance with the standards for applications and ensure seamless interoperability of services and implementation of short and long codes for public services across multiple service providers.
4. Develop suitable mechanisms to enable users to pay for public services through mobile phones.
5. Identify key public services for delivery though mobile platform through stakeholder consultations.
6. Create a state of the art knowledge portal as well as various toolkits for deployment of m-governance.

Evolution of m- Governance: It is important to clearly understand these distinct yet interlinked stages of m-Governance as explained below:

1. Information
2. Interaction
3. Transaction

Transformation Potential of m-Governance in Delivery of Public Services: m-governance holds tremendous potential for improving the access to and delivery of public services because of the following aspects:
1. Huge and Growing Base of Mobile Phone Subscribers
2. Availability of Low Cost Mobile Services & Handsets
3. Penetration of Internet and Broadband Initiatives in Mobile Based Delivery of Public Services in India

A number of initiatives highlighted below have been launched in India by various Governments and Government agencies to provide public services through mobile phones.

m-Governance in Kerala: The Government of Kerala has launched mobile based public services in a number of Government departments in the state. These include agriculture, health, district administration, tourism, fisheries, motor vehicles, police, elections, etc.

m-Governance in Goa: The Government of Goa has launched a m-governance initiative by establishing a SMS Gateway for providing SMS based services to residents by various Government departments.

Passport Application Status on Mobiles: The Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India has launched a SMS based status tracking s enabling them to get the status of their applications by sending a SMS.
Mobile Based Intelligent Garbage Monitoring System in Hyderabad Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation has launched a unique mobile phone based Intelligent Garbage Monitoring System that enables the sanitary supervisors to report the status of cleaning of garbage bins through their GPS enabled mobile phones. Mobile Banking in India Over the years, banking has transcended from the traditional brick and mortar model to one where banking services are available anytime anywhere. The onset of mobile banking has transformed the banking services in the country by enabling the people to access their bank accounts almost instantaneously, conduct transactions, and receive SMS alerts on transactions. m-Governance in Rajkot Municipal Corporation RMC is ushering the mobile technology to serve the people of Rajkot more efficiently & effectively. Conclusion & Way Forward Harnessing the power of mobile phones for m-governance has the power of transforming government and making knowledge-based good governance a reality. While the challenges faced by governments are colossal, the new technologies provide tremendous opportunities for enhancing the power of governments to ensure public participation, handle data, take better informed decisions, and provide transparent, cost-effective and accountable solutions and public services to citizens and business.

There is an urgent need to address the issues of using mobile technology for transformation of governance and leapfrogging development of the country. References: 1. Paper on ‘Smart Mobile Cities: Opportunities for Accenture & CISCO Mobile Operators to Deliver Intelligent Cities’ 2011
2. E-Government…. The science of the possible Prentice-Hall of India by J Satyanarayan 2004
3. Reengineering the Corporation Nicholos Brealey Publishing by Michael Hammer & James Champy 1993
4. E-Government: from Vision to Implementation SAGE Publications by Subhash Bhatnagar 2004
5. Paper “ICT & eGovernance for Rural Development” IIM, Ahmadabad by Prof TP Rama Rao 2010
6. Paper “e-Governance Action Plan for India” by Sameer Sachdeva
7. Connected Sustainable Cities MIT Mobile Experience Lab by William J Mitchell and Federico Cassalegno 2008
8. Discussion Paper “Innovations in ICT for improving Queensland Government Service Delivery: e-Government” Australia – 2010
9. Microsoft Paper “Connected Government in a Microsoft Corporation Connected World” 2011
10 Paper “ICT for Sustainable International Development” 2008 by S Giovanni\
11 e-Government Handbook for Developing Countries World Bank 2004
12. Recommendations of the National Knowledge Commission 2009
13 Framework for Citizen Engagement in NeGP Dept of IT, GoI 2011

Brief Biodata of Presenter:

Colonel (retd) Jagdish Jamwal is a Seasoned and Versatile professional with over 30 years of executive & management experience and strong fundamentals in the realm of e-Governance & Urban Governance in the Government Sector. Specialised in capacity building and business processes reengineering in the urban sector. He has a profound appreciation of Government Procedures, Relationship Management and fostering new alliances. Educated as a Telecom Engineer, MBA Technology Management from Dept of Business Management, Osmania University, Hyderabad and now pursuing PhD in Urban Governance. He has more than 100 technical reports and publications to his credit, including a study report on Strategy Focused on Centre for Urban Governance of ASCI, Capacity Building for Municipal Administration of a Developing State, City Development Plan of Jammu City, e-Governance Roadmap of Developing State etc. Presently he is Advisor in the Urban Governance Area at Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad and closely associated with the development of City Sanitation Plans of UP cities and e-learning & GDLN initiative of World Bank. He is also working on the applications of ICT for effective urban management and developing the conceptual framework for the ‘SMART CITIES’.

eINDIA 2012 :: Application of Nanotechnology in early detection of plant diseases to ensure food security

eINDIA Track: eGov

Title of Paper: A case study for utilizing cloud as a future for Government

Author Name: Neha Bhalla
Email: nehabhalla5@gmail.com
Designation: Student
Organization: Institute of Health Management Research, Jaipur
Address: IIHMR, 1- Prabhu Dayal Marg, Sanganer Airport, Jaipur
Zip: 303011

Co-Author 1:
Author Name: Neha Bhalla
Email: nehabhalla5@gmail.com
Organization: Institute of Health Management Research, Jaipur
Address: IIHMR, 1- Prabhu Dayal Marg, Sanganer Airport, Jaipur
Zip: 303011

Abstract:

Application of Nanotechnology in early detection of plant diseases to ensure food security Background of the Study: The current global population is nearly 6 billion with 50% living in Asia. A large proportion of those living in developing countries face daily food shortages as a result of environmental impacts or political instability, while in the developed world there is a food surplus. For developing countries the drive is to develop drought and pest resistant crops, which also maximize yield. In developed countries, the food industry is driven by consumer demand which is currently for fresher and healthier foodstuffs. The prediction is that nanotechnology will transform the entire food industry, changing the way food is produced, processed, packaged, transported, and consumed. Nanotechnology is the manipulation or self-assembly of individual atoms, molecules, or molecular clusters into structures to create materials and devices with new or vastly different properties. Nanotechnology has been described as the new industrial revolution and both developed and developing countries are investing in this technology to secure a market share. At present the USA leads with a 4 year, 3.7 billion USD investments through its National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). The USA is followed by Japan and the European Union, which have both committed substantial funds (750 million and 1.2 billion, including individual country contributions, respectively per year). The level of funding in developing countries may be comparatively lower, however this has not lessened the impact of some countries on the global stage. Nanotechnology can be used for combating the plant diseases either by controlled delivery of functional molecules or as diagnostic tool for disease detection. Nanotechnology, nano particles and quantum dots (QD) have emerged as pivotal tool for detection of a particular biological marker with extreme accuracy. The possibilities in future as well as some success that have been achieved so far are discussed in this review. Diagnosis of a disease in its very early stage can play important role in treatment. Due to phenomenal advancement in nanotechnology, QDs have emerged as pivotal tool for detection of a particular biological marker with extreme accuracy. QDS being very photo-stable and optically sensitive can be used as labeling and can be easily traced with ordinary equipment. Early detection of tumor markers using quantum dots is proved to be boon for cancer diagnosis. Use of QDs has also helped in unlocking complex neurological phenomenon, such as molecular activities at synapse during neurotransmission. QDs also give important information about receptor movement if tagged with suitable antibodies. In short, optical stability and easy to handle properties have made QDs to remain at the apex of medical diagnostics. A need for detecting plant disease at an early stage so that tons of food can be protected from the possible outbreak; has tempted Nanotechnologists to look for a nano solution for protecting the food and agriculture from bacteria, fungus and viral agents. A detection technique that takes less time and that can give results within a few hours, that is simple, portable and accurate and does not require any complicated technique for operation so that even a simple farmer can use the portable system. Objective of study: To analyze the effectiveness of union of biotechnology and nanotechnology in sensors whether will create equipment of increased sensitivity, allowing an earlier response to environmental changes and diseases? To study various methods that can be used to combat the problem of food shortage like 1. Quantum Dots:- QDs are few nm in diameter, roughly spherical (some QDs have rod like structures), fluorescent, crystalline particles of semiconductors whose excitons are confined in all the three spatial dimensions. Diagnosis of a disease in its very early stage can play important role in treatment. QDs being very photo-stable and optically sensitive can be used as labeling and can be easily traced with ordinary equipment. Early detection of diseases using quantum dots is proved to be boon. 2. Nanoscale Biosensors:- Involving biological molecules such as sugars or proteins as target-recognition groups could be used as biosensors on foods to detect pathogens and other contaminants. In food industry, nanosensors would provide increased security of manufacturing, processing, and shipping of food products through sensors for pathogen and contaminant detection. Benefits of using nanosensors are small, portable, rapid response and processing (i.e., real-time), specific, quantitative, reliable, accurate, reproducible, robust and stable which can overcome the deficits of present sensors. 3. Utilization of a Carbon Nanomaterial as a Sensor:- Nano-sensor devices that use Carbon Nano Tubes or Nano-cantilevers; are small enough to trap and measure individual proteins or small molecules. A contaminant can be detected by specially engineered Nanoparticles or Nano-surfaces which trigger an electrical or chemical signal. Some Nanosensors work by initiating enzymatic reactions or by using Nano-engineered branching molecules called dendrimers as probes to bind to target chemicals and proteins. Pathogen and contaminant detection is possible with increased sensitivity and decreased response time due to Nanosensors. Finding and Conclusions: Whatever the impacts of nanotechnology on the food industry and products entering the market, the safety of food will remain the prime concern. This need will strengthen the adoption of nanotechnology in sensing applications, which will ensure food safety and security, as well as technology which alerts customers and shopkeepers when a food is nearing the end of its shelf-life. New antimicrobial coatings and dirt repellent plastic bags are a remarkable improvement in ensuring the safety and security of packaged food. With enhancing expertise to understand the atomic cross talk, scientists are developing new tools to formulate nanodevices capable of replacing many cellular types of machinery efficiently. Our inability to look at minute anatomical damages due to diseases and infection, such as loss of the receptor, vital proteins from cell membrane or a serious biochemical blunder in any apart of the plant will provide us a tangible to tackle molecular anomalies. This utmost need gave birth to use of principles involved in atomic interactions, nanometric devices. Nanorobotics devices marching in the body can give us abundant information for curing inimical physiological conditions such as nutrient deficiency.

Brief Biodata of Presenter:

Neha Bhalla, 23 years, Ludhiana, B.Sc. Hons Food Science and Technology, Pursuing Health Management from Institute of Health Management and Research

Social Media url: https://www.facebook.com/neha.bhalla.9

eINDIA 2012 :: A case study for utilizing cloud as a future for Government

eINDIA Track: eGov

Title of Paper: A case study for utilizing cloud as a future for Government

Author Name: Gnana Seelan
Email: mgseelan@cdac.in
Designation: Project Engineer
Organization: Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)
Address:  JNTU Campus, Kukatpally, Hderabad, India
Zip: 500086

Co-Author 1:
Author Name: Gnana Seelan
Email: mgseelan@cdac.in
Organization: Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)
Address: JNTU Campus, Kukatpally, Hderabad, India
Zip:500086

Co-Author 2:
Author Name: Ch A S Murty
Designation: PTO
Email: chasmurty@cdac.in
Organization: Center for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)
Address: JNTU Campus, Kukatpally, Hderabad, India
Zip:500086

Abstract:

Cloud services represent a growing paradigm shift in the requirement of the IT development of on-demand access to the service to computing, data and software utilities, an illustration technology of unlimited resources, and a usage-based service provider model where users essentially “hire” virtual resources and satisfy the provider for what they use. Abstraction of these cloud services are concatenated and virtualized data centers that provide virtual machine (VM) containers hosting computation and applications from a large numbers of distributed users. It is expected in the near future that cloud platforms and services will play a critical role in academic, government and industry sectors, and will thus have widespread social impact. The main goal for cloud environment is to provide the physics, chemistry, Inorganic, Biotechnology, weather forecasting, Medical science, Health information, Information security, Data center, and engineering communities with the opportunity to leverage highly-scalable cloud computing platforms to conduct research and education activities in cloud computing and data-intensive computing, and their applications. “Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.” As of characteristics they are On-demand self-service, Broad network access, Resource pooling, Rapid elasticity and Measured service. In other hand the service models are Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). In terms of deployment models they are of Private Cloud, Community Cloud, Public Cloud, and Hybrid Cloud [2]. The service models and deployment models of cloud technology offer the most appreciable contents of the cloud definition and we spent some time accept the concepts here: Many organizations already use IaaS when they outsource network management, other infrastructure level outsourcing. IaaS is the most basic service and usually includes shared network services, firewall management and storage. Virtual servers are often included with limited management. Other hand moving up to platform level outsourcing enables organizations to outsource entire systems up through the operating system, database and application middle ware. Next level is Platform as a Service (PaaS) , platform services include server management, network management, back-up and other core IT functions that are more efficiently provided in 3rd party facilities. Uses include development environment, web server hosting and other shared application libraries to enable clients to rapidly accelerate deployment of services. The final step in the cloud is Software as a Service in the value chain is full application outsourcing to include data management. A good example of this would be outsourcing virtual desktops, email, and payroll or moving Customer Relationship Management from 3rd party. [2] The level of service provider responsibility defines the benefit available from each service. When implemented effectively, the SaaS model has compelling benefits. Not only does the organization reduce internal operating costs but it shifts responsibility for the inevitable issues that arise. Those long nights of solving IT problems become the responsibly of the service provider. Since the service provider typically shares both the facilities and staff resources across a number of organization operations, the cost benefits are compelling. However, the potential benefits are not limited to cost alone and depend on the following benefits : Scalability, Flexibility, Performance, Extensibility, Reliability, and Security. [2] Security in cloud is still a question of solution. The migration to cloud services is in the early stages of this phase of IT maturity. Early success with outsourced infrastructure services combine with a flood of software services being offered is accelerating the adoption. The mobile platforms are the early adopters for shared web applications because organizations can move more quickly towards productive use of smart phones. When customers or staff Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) to work or to your business, cloud infrastructure starts its inevitable creep into your environment. Many IT executives have called this the “Post – Firewall” generation of application hosting and data services. A recent survey reported that an application developed on an iPad, was not controlled by the company, on an airplane broadband network with no firewall and access to a critical application that had little control by the company. Essentially, a critical sales or purchase management function with sensitive client data was being performed with little or no control by the organization today. The dramatic improvement in efficiency, cost reduction and scalability will drive adoption of cloud services into every environment.[2] In this regards Indian government is moving to adopt the Cloud faster than the large enterprise segment. Some state governments are already consuming services from others through this model and there is potential to employ Cloud computing for things like sharing SDCs. Obviously, thanks to the sensitive nature of information handled by the government and data residency issues, the private Cloud is going to be the preferred option for this sector. Governments in BRICS are extremely active participants in the Cloud ecosystem. The government of India is actively promoting Cloud computing through the construction of various test beds and the launch of multiple Cloud service initiatives such as e-governance, Cloud grids etc.,[3] There are obvious challenges ahead of the government agencies that include adopting the right strategy for business continuity, identifying platforms, security, auditing and logging, data recovery, low IT maturity and high resistance to change, multiplicity of agencies involved in the implementation, longer procurement cycles and, most importantly, regulatory compliance. There is a need to develop a legal framework and risk management program. Considering the large investments required for setting up Cloud computing infrastructure, it is likely that some vendors may not be from the domestic market. In this context, issues such as security in the Cloud computing context and the potential liability arising out of security breaches in the Cloud may need to be addressed.[3] In our paper we are explaining the benefits of cloud implementation for government in terms of e-Governance starting from central, state, district, and at last the village level wher ICT is formed by the government. The major aspects of the government moving to towards the evolving cloud technologies are to save national expenditure. 50 to 70% of our money is moving towards outward for the critical infrastructure to overcome all government moving towards cloud environment. Hence, it is necessity for government to understand the underlined technologies of cloud and its security in terms of resource. We are highlighting all the consideration such as Data Protection, Identity Management and Access Controls, Flexible Access Methods, Log Management, Trust, Network Isolation, Availability, Compliance Management, Incident Response and E-discovery and Security Program Governance are briefly in the paper.

Brief Biodata of Presenter:

Gnana Seelan , working as Project Engineer, Interested areas are Information Security, Grid, cloud and cluster environment, Network and Security.

Other Details: Interest in Wireless sensor network and Open source Plate forms.