eINDIA 2012 :: Application of Nanotechnology in early detection of plant diseases to ensure food security

eINDIA Track: eGov

Title of Paper: A case study for utilizing cloud as a future for Government

Author Name: Neha Bhalla
Email: nehabhalla5@gmail.com
Designation: Student
Organization: Institute of Health Management Research, Jaipur
Address: IIHMR, 1- Prabhu Dayal Marg, Sanganer Airport, Jaipur
Zip: 303011

Co-Author 1:
Author Name: Neha Bhalla
Email: nehabhalla5@gmail.com
Organization: Institute of Health Management Research, Jaipur
Address: IIHMR, 1- Prabhu Dayal Marg, Sanganer Airport, Jaipur
Zip: 303011

Abstract:

Application of Nanotechnology in early detection of plant diseases to ensure food security Background of the Study: The current global population is nearly 6 billion with 50% living in Asia. A large proportion of those living in developing countries face daily food shortages as a result of environmental impacts or political instability, while in the developed world there is a food surplus. For developing countries the drive is to develop drought and pest resistant crops, which also maximize yield. In developed countries, the food industry is driven by consumer demand which is currently for fresher and healthier foodstuffs. The prediction is that nanotechnology will transform the entire food industry, changing the way food is produced, processed, packaged, transported, and consumed. Nanotechnology is the manipulation or self-assembly of individual atoms, molecules, or molecular clusters into structures to create materials and devices with new or vastly different properties. Nanotechnology has been described as the new industrial revolution and both developed and developing countries are investing in this technology to secure a market share. At present the USA leads with a 4 year, 3.7 billion USD investments through its National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). The USA is followed by Japan and the European Union, which have both committed substantial funds (750 million and 1.2 billion, including individual country contributions, respectively per year). The level of funding in developing countries may be comparatively lower, however this has not lessened the impact of some countries on the global stage. Nanotechnology can be used for combating the plant diseases either by controlled delivery of functional molecules or as diagnostic tool for disease detection. Nanotechnology, nano particles and quantum dots (QD) have emerged as pivotal tool for detection of a particular biological marker with extreme accuracy. The possibilities in future as well as some success that have been achieved so far are discussed in this review. Diagnosis of a disease in its very early stage can play important role in treatment. Due to phenomenal advancement in nanotechnology, QDs have emerged as pivotal tool for detection of a particular biological marker with extreme accuracy. QDS being very photo-stable and optically sensitive can be used as labeling and can be easily traced with ordinary equipment. Early detection of tumor markers using quantum dots is proved to be boon for cancer diagnosis. Use of QDs has also helped in unlocking complex neurological phenomenon, such as molecular activities at synapse during neurotransmission. QDs also give important information about receptor movement if tagged with suitable antibodies. In short, optical stability and easy to handle properties have made QDs to remain at the apex of medical diagnostics. A need for detecting plant disease at an early stage so that tons of food can be protected from the possible outbreak; has tempted Nanotechnologists to look for a nano solution for protecting the food and agriculture from bacteria, fungus and viral agents. A detection technique that takes less time and that can give results within a few hours, that is simple, portable and accurate and does not require any complicated technique for operation so that even a simple farmer can use the portable system. Objective of study: To analyze the effectiveness of union of biotechnology and nanotechnology in sensors whether will create equipment of increased sensitivity, allowing an earlier response to environmental changes and diseases? To study various methods that can be used to combat the problem of food shortage like 1. Quantum Dots:- QDs are few nm in diameter, roughly spherical (some QDs have rod like structures), fluorescent, crystalline particles of semiconductors whose excitons are confined in all the three spatial dimensions. Diagnosis of a disease in its very early stage can play important role in treatment. QDs being very photo-stable and optically sensitive can be used as labeling and can be easily traced with ordinary equipment. Early detection of diseases using quantum dots is proved to be boon. 2. Nanoscale Biosensors:- Involving biological molecules such as sugars or proteins as target-recognition groups could be used as biosensors on foods to detect pathogens and other contaminants. In food industry, nanosensors would provide increased security of manufacturing, processing, and shipping of food products through sensors for pathogen and contaminant detection. Benefits of using nanosensors are small, portable, rapid response and processing (i.e., real-time), specific, quantitative, reliable, accurate, reproducible, robust and stable which can overcome the deficits of present sensors. 3. Utilization of a Carbon Nanomaterial as a Sensor:- Nano-sensor devices that use Carbon Nano Tubes or Nano-cantilevers; are small enough to trap and measure individual proteins or small molecules. A contaminant can be detected by specially engineered Nanoparticles or Nano-surfaces which trigger an electrical or chemical signal. Some Nanosensors work by initiating enzymatic reactions or by using Nano-engineered branching molecules called dendrimers as probes to bind to target chemicals and proteins. Pathogen and contaminant detection is possible with increased sensitivity and decreased response time due to Nanosensors. Finding and Conclusions: Whatever the impacts of nanotechnology on the food industry and products entering the market, the safety of food will remain the prime concern. This need will strengthen the adoption of nanotechnology in sensing applications, which will ensure food safety and security, as well as technology which alerts customers and shopkeepers when a food is nearing the end of its shelf-life. New antimicrobial coatings and dirt repellent plastic bags are a remarkable improvement in ensuring the safety and security of packaged food. With enhancing expertise to understand the atomic cross talk, scientists are developing new tools to formulate nanodevices capable of replacing many cellular types of machinery efficiently. Our inability to look at minute anatomical damages due to diseases and infection, such as loss of the receptor, vital proteins from cell membrane or a serious biochemical blunder in any apart of the plant will provide us a tangible to tackle molecular anomalies. This utmost need gave birth to use of principles involved in atomic interactions, nanometric devices. Nanorobotics devices marching in the body can give us abundant information for curing inimical physiological conditions such as nutrient deficiency.

Brief Biodata of Presenter:

Neha Bhalla, 23 years, Ludhiana, B.Sc. Hons Food Science and Technology, Pursuing Health Management from Institute of Health Management and Research

Social Media url: https://www.facebook.com/neha.bhalla.9

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