eINDIA 2012 :: m-Governance for Effective Public Service Delivery in India

eINDIA Track: eGov

Title of Paper: m-Governance for Effective Public Service Delivery in India

Author Name: Colonel (Rtd) Jagdish Jamwal
Email: coljjamwal@gmail.com
Designation: Advisor Urban Governance
Organization: ASCI
Address:  India Bella Vista, Raj Bhawan Road, Hyderabad, India
Zip: 500082


Introduction- Governments around the world have long recognized the need and potential of ICTs to make government services available to all the residents. As a result, e-Governance has emerged as a popular phenomenon to deliver government services around the world. However, e-Governance in an implementation sense is restricted primarily to the use of computer based internet access to deliver services. In India where the penetration of computers and internet is relatively low particularly in rural areas, there is an apprehension that the reach of e-Governance may be limited. The limited reach of e-Governance has made governments think of new technologies, such as mobile phones, to reach the residents and deliver public services. This phenomenon has been driven primarily by the rapid growth of mobile phone subscribers in several developing countries. India, with its more than 900 million mobile phone subscribers offers a unique proposition to develop into mobile digital society; particularly in relation to the delivery of public services to its population. While e -government is usually defined as the conventional government services made available for all users through electronic means, mobile government or m-government is focussed on the overall strategy and processes for delivering various public services through all kinds of wireless and mobile technologies to all users, including residents, government departments and businesses. Penetration of Mobile Phones The growth of mobile phones subscribers in India over the last decade has been explosive and the scenario has completely changed now with over 900 million mobile phones subscribers in the country and the mobile teledensity is 65%. Out of the total mobile subscribers, the share of rural subscribers is 350 million, amounting 35% and the rural mobile teledensity is 32% whereas the same for urban areas is 140%. Wide access to mobile phones in the country has made it an ideal platform for Government to resident interface, especially in the rural areas. Imperatives of Citizen Engagement There is now a greater consensus that citizen participation and civic engagement are the building blocks for good governance and m-Governance is a critical component of good governance. Also, as the government is considering enacting the Electronic Service Delivery Law, the possibility of m-Government projects becoming pervasive in all domains of public services is increasingly becoming a reality. It marks a paradigm shift in delivery of public and essential services – from human to technology based interfaces. The use of mobile technology interface for delivery of services throws up many challenges especially those related to management of change from human interface to technology interface, adoption of a particular technology, differential access to such services etc.

Objectives of m- Governance: The broad objectives of the m-governance can be achieved by:

1. Building an enabling mobile service delivery infrastructure consisting of a Mobile Service Delivery Gateway (MSDG) that is fully integrated with the existing infrastructure. 2. Formulate relevant standards for applications for m-governance to ensure seamless interoperability of services across multiple service providers and multiple Government departments and agencies.
3. Develop an appropriate regulatory regime for m-governance to ensure proper coordination among multiple stakeholders, ensure compliance with the standards for applications and ensure seamless interoperability of services and implementation of short and long codes for public services across multiple service providers.
4. Develop suitable mechanisms to enable users to pay for public services through mobile phones.
5. Identify key public services for delivery though mobile platform through stakeholder consultations.
6. Create a state of the art knowledge portal as well as various toolkits for deployment of m-governance.

Evolution of m- Governance: It is important to clearly understand these distinct yet interlinked stages of m-Governance as explained below:

1. Information
2. Interaction
3. Transaction

Transformation Potential of m-Governance in Delivery of Public Services: m-governance holds tremendous potential for improving the access to and delivery of public services because of the following aspects:
1. Huge and Growing Base of Mobile Phone Subscribers
2. Availability of Low Cost Mobile Services & Handsets
3. Penetration of Internet and Broadband Initiatives in Mobile Based Delivery of Public Services in India

A number of initiatives highlighted below have been launched in India by various Governments and Government agencies to provide public services through mobile phones.

m-Governance in Kerala: The Government of Kerala has launched mobile based public services in a number of Government departments in the state. These include agriculture, health, district administration, tourism, fisheries, motor vehicles, police, elections, etc.

m-Governance in Goa: The Government of Goa has launched a m-governance initiative by establishing a SMS Gateway for providing SMS based services to residents by various Government departments.

Passport Application Status on Mobiles: The Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India has launched a SMS based status tracking s enabling them to get the status of their applications by sending a SMS.
Mobile Based Intelligent Garbage Monitoring System in Hyderabad Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation has launched a unique mobile phone based Intelligent Garbage Monitoring System that enables the sanitary supervisors to report the status of cleaning of garbage bins through their GPS enabled mobile phones. Mobile Banking in India Over the years, banking has transcended from the traditional brick and mortar model to one where banking services are available anytime anywhere. The onset of mobile banking has transformed the banking services in the country by enabling the people to access their bank accounts almost instantaneously, conduct transactions, and receive SMS alerts on transactions. m-Governance in Rajkot Municipal Corporation RMC is ushering the mobile technology to serve the people of Rajkot more efficiently & effectively. Conclusion & Way Forward Harnessing the power of mobile phones for m-governance has the power of transforming government and making knowledge-based good governance a reality. While the challenges faced by governments are colossal, the new technologies provide tremendous opportunities for enhancing the power of governments to ensure public participation, handle data, take better informed decisions, and provide transparent, cost-effective and accountable solutions and public services to citizens and business.

There is an urgent need to address the issues of using mobile technology for transformation of governance and leapfrogging development of the country. References: 1. Paper on ‘Smart Mobile Cities: Opportunities for Accenture & CISCO Mobile Operators to Deliver Intelligent Cities’ 2011
2. E-Government…. The science of the possible Prentice-Hall of India by J Satyanarayan 2004
3. Reengineering the Corporation Nicholos Brealey Publishing by Michael Hammer & James Champy 1993
4. E-Government: from Vision to Implementation SAGE Publications by Subhash Bhatnagar 2004
5. Paper “ICT & eGovernance for Rural Development” IIM, Ahmadabad by Prof TP Rama Rao 2010
6. Paper “e-Governance Action Plan for India” by Sameer Sachdeva
7. Connected Sustainable Cities MIT Mobile Experience Lab by William J Mitchell and Federico Cassalegno 2008
8. Discussion Paper “Innovations in ICT for improving Queensland Government Service Delivery: e-Government” Australia – 2010
9. Microsoft Paper “Connected Government in a Microsoft Corporation Connected World” 2011
10 Paper “ICT for Sustainable International Development” 2008 by S Giovanni\
11 e-Government Handbook for Developing Countries World Bank 2004
12. Recommendations of the National Knowledge Commission 2009
13 Framework for Citizen Engagement in NeGP Dept of IT, GoI 2011

Brief Biodata of Presenter:

Colonel (retd) Jagdish Jamwal is a Seasoned and Versatile professional with over 30 years of executive & management experience and strong fundamentals in the realm of e-Governance & Urban Governance in the Government Sector. Specialised in capacity building and business processes reengineering in the urban sector. He has a profound appreciation of Government Procedures, Relationship Management and fostering new alliances. Educated as a Telecom Engineer, MBA Technology Management from Dept of Business Management, Osmania University, Hyderabad and now pursuing PhD in Urban Governance. He has more than 100 technical reports and publications to his credit, including a study report on Strategy Focused on Centre for Urban Governance of ASCI, Capacity Building for Municipal Administration of a Developing State, City Development Plan of Jammu City, e-Governance Roadmap of Developing State etc. Presently he is Advisor in the Urban Governance Area at Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad and closely associated with the development of City Sanitation Plans of UP cities and e-learning & GDLN initiative of World Bank. He is also working on the applications of ICT for effective urban management and developing the conceptual framework for the ‘SMART CITIES’.

eINDIA 2012 :: Application of Nanotechnology in early detection of plant diseases to ensure food security

eINDIA Track: eGov

Title of Paper: A case study for utilizing cloud as a future for Government

Author Name: Neha Bhalla
Email: nehabhalla5@gmail.com
Designation: Student
Organization: Institute of Health Management Research, Jaipur
Address: IIHMR, 1- Prabhu Dayal Marg, Sanganer Airport, Jaipur
Zip: 303011

Co-Author 1:
Author Name: Neha Bhalla
Email: nehabhalla5@gmail.com
Organization: Institute of Health Management Research, Jaipur
Address: IIHMR, 1- Prabhu Dayal Marg, Sanganer Airport, Jaipur
Zip: 303011


Application of Nanotechnology in early detection of plant diseases to ensure food security Background of the Study: The current global population is nearly 6 billion with 50% living in Asia. A large proportion of those living in developing countries face daily food shortages as a result of environmental impacts or political instability, while in the developed world there is a food surplus. For developing countries the drive is to develop drought and pest resistant crops, which also maximize yield. In developed countries, the food industry is driven by consumer demand which is currently for fresher and healthier foodstuffs. The prediction is that nanotechnology will transform the entire food industry, changing the way food is produced, processed, packaged, transported, and consumed. Nanotechnology is the manipulation or self-assembly of individual atoms, molecules, or molecular clusters into structures to create materials and devices with new or vastly different properties. Nanotechnology has been described as the new industrial revolution and both developed and developing countries are investing in this technology to secure a market share. At present the USA leads with a 4 year, 3.7 billion USD investments through its National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). The USA is followed by Japan and the European Union, which have both committed substantial funds (750 million and 1.2 billion, including individual country contributions, respectively per year). The level of funding in developing countries may be comparatively lower, however this has not lessened the impact of some countries on the global stage. Nanotechnology can be used for combating the plant diseases either by controlled delivery of functional molecules or as diagnostic tool for disease detection. Nanotechnology, nano particles and quantum dots (QD) have emerged as pivotal tool for detection of a particular biological marker with extreme accuracy. The possibilities in future as well as some success that have been achieved so far are discussed in this review. Diagnosis of a disease in its very early stage can play important role in treatment. Due to phenomenal advancement in nanotechnology, QDs have emerged as pivotal tool for detection of a particular biological marker with extreme accuracy. QDS being very photo-stable and optically sensitive can be used as labeling and can be easily traced with ordinary equipment. Early detection of tumor markers using quantum dots is proved to be boon for cancer diagnosis. Use of QDs has also helped in unlocking complex neurological phenomenon, such as molecular activities at synapse during neurotransmission. QDs also give important information about receptor movement if tagged with suitable antibodies. In short, optical stability and easy to handle properties have made QDs to remain at the apex of medical diagnostics. A need for detecting plant disease at an early stage so that tons of food can be protected from the possible outbreak; has tempted Nanotechnologists to look for a nano solution for protecting the food and agriculture from bacteria, fungus and viral agents. A detection technique that takes less time and that can give results within a few hours, that is simple, portable and accurate and does not require any complicated technique for operation so that even a simple farmer can use the portable system. Objective of study: To analyze the effectiveness of union of biotechnology and nanotechnology in sensors whether will create equipment of increased sensitivity, allowing an earlier response to environmental changes and diseases? To study various methods that can be used to combat the problem of food shortage like 1. Quantum Dots:- QDs are few nm in diameter, roughly spherical (some QDs have rod like structures), fluorescent, crystalline particles of semiconductors whose excitons are confined in all the three spatial dimensions. Diagnosis of a disease in its very early stage can play important role in treatment. QDs being very photo-stable and optically sensitive can be used as labeling and can be easily traced with ordinary equipment. Early detection of diseases using quantum dots is proved to be boon. 2. Nanoscale Biosensors:- Involving biological molecules such as sugars or proteins as target-recognition groups could be used as biosensors on foods to detect pathogens and other contaminants. In food industry, nanosensors would provide increased security of manufacturing, processing, and shipping of food products through sensors for pathogen and contaminant detection. Benefits of using nanosensors are small, portable, rapid response and processing (i.e., real-time), specific, quantitative, reliable, accurate, reproducible, robust and stable which can overcome the deficits of present sensors. 3. Utilization of a Carbon Nanomaterial as a Sensor:- Nano-sensor devices that use Carbon Nano Tubes or Nano-cantilevers; are small enough to trap and measure individual proteins or small molecules. A contaminant can be detected by specially engineered Nanoparticles or Nano-surfaces which trigger an electrical or chemical signal. Some Nanosensors work by initiating enzymatic reactions or by using Nano-engineered branching molecules called dendrimers as probes to bind to target chemicals and proteins. Pathogen and contaminant detection is possible with increased sensitivity and decreased response time due to Nanosensors. Finding and Conclusions: Whatever the impacts of nanotechnology on the food industry and products entering the market, the safety of food will remain the prime concern. This need will strengthen the adoption of nanotechnology in sensing applications, which will ensure food safety and security, as well as technology which alerts customers and shopkeepers when a food is nearing the end of its shelf-life. New antimicrobial coatings and dirt repellent plastic bags are a remarkable improvement in ensuring the safety and security of packaged food. With enhancing expertise to understand the atomic cross talk, scientists are developing new tools to formulate nanodevices capable of replacing many cellular types of machinery efficiently. Our inability to look at minute anatomical damages due to diseases and infection, such as loss of the receptor, vital proteins from cell membrane or a serious biochemical blunder in any apart of the plant will provide us a tangible to tackle molecular anomalies. This utmost need gave birth to use of principles involved in atomic interactions, nanometric devices. Nanorobotics devices marching in the body can give us abundant information for curing inimical physiological conditions such as nutrient deficiency.

Brief Biodata of Presenter:

Neha Bhalla, 23 years, Ludhiana, B.Sc. Hons Food Science and Technology, Pursuing Health Management from Institute of Health Management and Research

Social Media url: https://www.facebook.com/neha.bhalla.9

eINDIA 2012 :: A case study for utilizing cloud as a future for Government

eINDIA Track: eGov

Title of Paper: A case study for utilizing cloud as a future for Government

Author Name: Gnana Seelan
Email: mgseelan@cdac.in
Designation: Project Engineer
Organization: Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)
Address:  JNTU Campus, Kukatpally, Hderabad, India
Zip: 500086

Co-Author 1:
Author Name: Gnana Seelan
Email: mgseelan@cdac.in
Organization: Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)
Address: JNTU Campus, Kukatpally, Hderabad, India

Co-Author 2:
Author Name: Ch A S Murty
Designation: PTO
Email: chasmurty@cdac.in
Organization: Center for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)
Address: JNTU Campus, Kukatpally, Hderabad, India


Cloud services represent a growing paradigm shift in the requirement of the IT development of on-demand access to the service to computing, data and software utilities, an illustration technology of unlimited resources, and a usage-based service provider model where users essentially “hire” virtual resources and satisfy the provider for what they use. Abstraction of these cloud services are concatenated and virtualized data centers that provide virtual machine (VM) containers hosting computation and applications from a large numbers of distributed users. It is expected in the near future that cloud platforms and services will play a critical role in academic, government and industry sectors, and will thus have widespread social impact. The main goal for cloud environment is to provide the physics, chemistry, Inorganic, Biotechnology, weather forecasting, Medical science, Health information, Information security, Data center, and engineering communities with the opportunity to leverage highly-scalable cloud computing platforms to conduct research and education activities in cloud computing and data-intensive computing, and their applications. “Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.” As of characteristics they are On-demand self-service, Broad network access, Resource pooling, Rapid elasticity and Measured service. In other hand the service models are Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). In terms of deployment models they are of Private Cloud, Community Cloud, Public Cloud, and Hybrid Cloud [2]. The service models and deployment models of cloud technology offer the most appreciable contents of the cloud definition and we spent some time accept the concepts here: Many organizations already use IaaS when they outsource network management, other infrastructure level outsourcing. IaaS is the most basic service and usually includes shared network services, firewall management and storage. Virtual servers are often included with limited management. Other hand moving up to platform level outsourcing enables organizations to outsource entire systems up through the operating system, database and application middle ware. Next level is Platform as a Service (PaaS) , platform services include server management, network management, back-up and other core IT functions that are more efficiently provided in 3rd party facilities. Uses include development environment, web server hosting and other shared application libraries to enable clients to rapidly accelerate deployment of services. The final step in the cloud is Software as a Service in the value chain is full application outsourcing to include data management. A good example of this would be outsourcing virtual desktops, email, and payroll or moving Customer Relationship Management from 3rd party. [2] The level of service provider responsibility defines the benefit available from each service. When implemented effectively, the SaaS model has compelling benefits. Not only does the organization reduce internal operating costs but it shifts responsibility for the inevitable issues that arise. Those long nights of solving IT problems become the responsibly of the service provider. Since the service provider typically shares both the facilities and staff resources across a number of organization operations, the cost benefits are compelling. However, the potential benefits are not limited to cost alone and depend on the following benefits : Scalability, Flexibility, Performance, Extensibility, Reliability, and Security. [2] Security in cloud is still a question of solution. The migration to cloud services is in the early stages of this phase of IT maturity. Early success with outsourced infrastructure services combine with a flood of software services being offered is accelerating the adoption. The mobile platforms are the early adopters for shared web applications because organizations can move more quickly towards productive use of smart phones. When customers or staff Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) to work or to your business, cloud infrastructure starts its inevitable creep into your environment. Many IT executives have called this the “Post – Firewall” generation of application hosting and data services. A recent survey reported that an application developed on an iPad, was not controlled by the company, on an airplane broadband network with no firewall and access to a critical application that had little control by the company. Essentially, a critical sales or purchase management function with sensitive client data was being performed with little or no control by the organization today. The dramatic improvement in efficiency, cost reduction and scalability will drive adoption of cloud services into every environment.[2] In this regards Indian government is moving to adopt the Cloud faster than the large enterprise segment. Some state governments are already consuming services from others through this model and there is potential to employ Cloud computing for things like sharing SDCs. Obviously, thanks to the sensitive nature of information handled by the government and data residency issues, the private Cloud is going to be the preferred option for this sector. Governments in BRICS are extremely active participants in the Cloud ecosystem. The government of India is actively promoting Cloud computing through the construction of various test beds and the launch of multiple Cloud service initiatives such as e-governance, Cloud grids etc.,[3] There are obvious challenges ahead of the government agencies that include adopting the right strategy for business continuity, identifying platforms, security, auditing and logging, data recovery, low IT maturity and high resistance to change, multiplicity of agencies involved in the implementation, longer procurement cycles and, most importantly, regulatory compliance. There is a need to develop a legal framework and risk management program. Considering the large investments required for setting up Cloud computing infrastructure, it is likely that some vendors may not be from the domestic market. In this context, issues such as security in the Cloud computing context and the potential liability arising out of security breaches in the Cloud may need to be addressed.[3] In our paper we are explaining the benefits of cloud implementation for government in terms of e-Governance starting from central, state, district, and at last the village level wher ICT is formed by the government. The major aspects of the government moving to towards the evolving cloud technologies are to save national expenditure. 50 to 70% of our money is moving towards outward for the critical infrastructure to overcome all government moving towards cloud environment. Hence, it is necessity for government to understand the underlined technologies of cloud and its security in terms of resource. We are highlighting all the consideration such as Data Protection, Identity Management and Access Controls, Flexible Access Methods, Log Management, Trust, Network Isolation, Availability, Compliance Management, Incident Response and E-discovery and Security Program Governance are briefly in the paper.

Brief Biodata of Presenter:

Gnana Seelan , working as Project Engineer, Interested areas are Information Security, Grid, cloud and cluster environment, Network and Security.

Other Details: Interest in Wireless sensor network and Open source Plate forms.


WES Track: Higher Education Track

Author Name: Neeraj Sharma
Email: u_neeraj@yahoo.co.in
Organization: University of Jammu
Address:  Vice Chancellor;s office, new campus, University of Jammu, The Business School, University of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir. Jammu, India


ABSTRACT In the information age, to maintain a competitive advantage, the organizations need to shift their focus from asset intensive to knowledge intensive and thus focus more on their human assets than on technology assets. Human resources, in this information age, is an increasingly broadening term that refers to managing \”human capital,\” the people of an organization. The field has moved from a traditionally administrative function to a strategic one that recognizes the link between talented and engaged people and organizational success. Human Capital is the place where all the ladders start: the wellspring of innovation, the homepage of insight. A great deal of related research is going on in the area of Human Capital Management. Researchers are projecting Human Capital Management as a new possibility in people management. Human Capital Management primarily aims at establishing and supporting and alignment between human operations, corporate identity and human development. In today’s knowledge based economy, higher education institutions are playing as centres for human resource development and aid in the development of the human resources. Also, universities currently face immeasurable complexities and turbulence in their external environments and their internal set ups are consequently under the pressure to adapt in an effective way. In the present global environment characterized by rapid change, intense information flows and increasing competition, emergence of higher education institutions holds an important place. Universities currently face immeasurable complexities and turbulence in their external environments and their internal set ups are consequently under the pressure to adapt in an effective way. On the one hand, universities are increasingly being required to teach ever increasing number of students in increasing numbers of specializations and disciplines and on the other they are being asked to pay more attention to quality of teaching and educational programs. All over the world, universities are facing the challenge of being the centers of excellence for teaching as well as research. The university administrations today are clearly interested in any activities that could significantly impact the performance levels of the Universities, as are the other stakeholders. Mashhadi (2008) state that balanced score card can be used as an instrument to help Higher Educational Institutions in developing a comprehensive view towards organization’s strategic position in the present global environment. The aim of this study is to find the level of Human Capital Management at University of Jammu, J&K, India. The research has been conducted by randomly selecting 100 teaching and non teaching staff employees from various departments of the University of Jammu. This study focuses on University of Jammu which is one of the most opted Universities by the students in Jammu and Kashmir State. The data has been collected by administering a self designed questionnaire based on the HRD Score Card Model (Rao, T. V., 2000:2008). The results of regression show that there is a non significant difference between the Factors of Human Capital Management .p>.05 Further the Chi Square results show that except for factor 3,4 and 5 i.e related to Training, Organizational Development and Information the difference is significant ( Confidence level 95%). This shows the effect on Job Satisfaction as well where the results of multiple regression show that there is a effect of the human resource development factors on the job satisfaction. Higher Educational Institutions contribute much to the future society by overall development of the future Human resources. These Institutions bear the responsibility of developing the minds of our nations’ most precious resources, Human Resources. In today’s Knowledge Based Economy the strategic role of quality in Higher Educational Institutions has become important. The research study shows the importance of the Human Capital Management for the Higher Education Institution by analyzing the Case of University of Jammu. The results obtained are important because they would allow the administration to self evaluate and improve their management approaches and further implement new approaches for the overall development of the Higher Education standards of the University. Based on the research findings the recommendations would help the administration to take steps for implementing the factors identified in the research and help in improving the job satisfaction among the employees. The research paper suggests measures for developing Human Capital in the university under study, which would help to plan, set targets and take strategic initiatives to face the challenge. Keywords: Human Capital, Human Capital Management, Higher Education Institutions, HRD Score Card Model, Employees’ satisfaction.

Brief Biodata of Presenter:

Neeraj Sharma Special Secretary to Vice Chancellor, University of Jammu Mail Id: Sp. Secretary to VC, University of Jammu Phone: 0191- 2450014 E-mail: ju_neeraj@yahoo.co.in


WES 2012 :: NAVCHETNA – Innovation in promoting Interactive Research for Collaborative Learning

WES Track: School Track

Title of Paper: NAVCHETNA – Innovation in promoting Interactive Research for Collaborative Learning
Author Name: Chitra Ravi
Email: chitra@ezvidya.com

Designation:Founder & CEO
Organization: EZ Vidya Private Limited
Address:  66, Kamdar Nagar Second Street
Nungambakkam, Tamil Nadu. Chennai – 600034

Upload profile pic:http://wes.eletsonline.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/CR2phoo3.jpg

Co-Author 1:
Author Name:
 Chitra Ravi
EZ Vidya Private Limited
66, Kamdar Nagar, II Street, Nungambakkam, Chennai – 600034

Co-Author 2:
Author Name: Ganesh Subramanian

Email: ganesh@ezvidya.com
Organization:EZ Vidya Private Limited
Address: 66, Kamdar Nagar, II Street, Nungambakkam, Chennai – 600034


NAV CHETNA – Objectives EZ Vidya introduced Navchetna, a two year programme, collaborative intensive research in the teaching-learning domain, has the following objectives as outlined below –  Enable teachers to identify and solve academic and school related issues with the help of a systematic approach  Facilitate a spirit of teacher collaboration  Gradually move teachers to view themselves as ‘researchers in education’ rather than ‘transactors in curricula’  Facilitate a spirit of continuous improvement  Provide schools with means to improve and sustain the process long after the intervention has been concluded Whilst the focus was on the above it was also ensured that each teacher’s evolution and progress would be tracked simultaneously. Each teacher would be given feedback about his/her progress from teacher to researcher. The school would also be in receipt of the same . Six different schools from all over the country enrolled to participate in the programme,initially. Since each school was different with its own set of systems and a different culture, we had to accordingly modify some of our core elements. Therefore, it was decided that each school’s culture would be examined, common approaches would be applied and its impact documented. More importantly the emphasis was on closely examining and analysing the different issues that arise in each school and resolving these with the help of Navchetna. Structure/focus area(s) The implementation of Navchetna is guided by the four key pillars on which it rests – empowerment, reflection, collaboration and sustenance. At each key stage we hope to strengthen each of these aspects focusing on a group of teachers. A detailed explanation of the four key pillars is given below – Empowerment Empowerment in education would be defined as a process whereby teachers are made aware of the right to participate in educational reforms and decide upon what should be taught in school and how (Bolin, 1989). In Navchetna empowerment refers to facilitating teachers’ understanding of key areas within the teaching-learning process. Teachers will become familiar with the more popular and adaptable educational ideas and key theories. With particular focus upon the ‘what should be taught and how’ teachers are slowly expected to become researchers in education. Collaboration Teachers are expected to collaborate with each other periodically and discuss key areas for change and improvement in this respect. Collaboration is a useful technique which we assume would allow teachers to explore pedagogy, their own professional development (Cunningham, 2003) and find answers to pressing matters in education while working on these collaboratively. Reflection The key goal of having this pillar was to encourage teachers to introspect and look into their own teaching processes and reflect upon the positives and areas for improvement. By having periodical sessions of classroom participation, teachers were given the opportunity to receive feedback and reflect. Another opportunity to reflect was through the practice of journal writing. While putting down their thoughts on paper we believe teachers may have been persuaded to think deep, look into their own practices and evaluate them. Sustenance The main difference between the first three pillars and sustenance is that we have not yet been able to examine its efficacy. More importantly, Navchetna being a relatively new endeavour, we are yet to install the fourth pillar in schools completely. Sustenance would refer to creating systems in the school that would ensure the continued practice of teacher empowerment. The process of sustenance starts in the second year and hope that teachers are able to sustain the different practices taught by us without our intervention. Activities in Navchetna Activities would entail a wide variety of workshops and sessions oriented towards the achievement of each pillar and encourage teachers to use different teaching methodologies. The goal is also to engage teachers in learning from each others’ experiences through collective sessions and help each other resolve issues in teaching. We carried out workshops for different educational theories and concepts (Example: Big Ideas, Multiple Intelligence, Classroom Participation, Focus group discussions, reading sessions among others). Sessions on Big ideas, Multiple Intelligence, Brain based learning (BBL), Collaborative Learning (CL), Critical thinking, creative thinking, Teaching for Understanding (TFU) were also included. These were done so as to familiarise teachers with the different key theories which necessitate teachers’ understanding. These workshops also consisted of information for understanding ideas of Core, expected learning outcomes (ELO), types of thinking. Journal writing: A Navchetna journal is a document which acts as tool to record instances from the teacher’s teaching session. It helps store instances which made the teacher happy or look deeply into her teaching methods, challenging classroom experiences, treasured moments and learners’ responses to her and her teaching.

Brief Biodata of Presenter:

An MBA from premier institute, Ganesh has had wide ranging corporate experience in the area of business development in leading educational services and information technology industries. His expertise is in conceptualization and product management. He has gained tremendous insights while working in overseas markets. Ganesh with his innovative and creative ideas, has added a lot of value to EZ Vidya’s services. His versatility sees him contributing immensely to all areas in the organization



WES 2012 :: Importance of Early Childhood Education On Learning Abilities Of Students

WES Track: School Track

Title of Paper: Importance of Early Childhood Education On Learning Abilities Of Students
Email: rodrigremy@yahoo.com


The first four to five years of life are the most significant years in a child’ development. It is a critical period for the development of language, numeracy and social skills. These emerge naturally for most children as they interact in the world around them. These early skills are essential precursors to success in school. This essay highlights the importance of how what a child learns in early childhood enhances his overall educational process and plays a vital role in the successful progression of all his future education. Early Childhood Education refers to the education that children obtain during early stages of their childhood. Early childhood is a crucial time period for the development of the mental functions of children. This development, including the emergence of the abilities and skills in areas such as language, motor skills, psychosocial cognitive and learning, is now known to be greatly influenced by exogenous factors, including the nature of the educational environment to which the child is exposed during the first 6 to 8 years of life (Bowman, Donovan and Burns, 2001). Henry Schultz, Professor at the University of Chicago point out that learning starts in infancy, long before formal education begins and continues throughout life. Early learning begets later learning and early success breeds later success, just as early failure breeds later failure. Success or failure at this stage lays the foundation for success or failure in school, which in turn leads to success or failure in post-school learning. Recent studies of early childhood investments have shown remarkable success and indicate that the early years are important for early learning. Moreover early childhood interventions of high quality have lasting effects on learning and motivation. Shonkoff Jack P stresses on the importance of early childhood education by mentioning that ‘Investment in early childhood development lays the foundation for a prosperous and sustainable society. The first years of life are important, because what happens in early childhood can matter for a lifetime. Science shows us what children must have and what they need to be protected from, in order to promote their healthy development. Stable, responsive, nurturing relationships and rich learning experiences in the earliest years provide lifelong benefits for learning, behavior and both physical and mental health.’ In early childhood, learning is at ‘flood-tide’ and is particularly crucial during the first three or four years after birth, affecting the every architecture of the brain and our dispositions to think and act, thus building life-long habits of mind. It has been shown that early childhood education can be a major input into a child\’s formal education. A number of studies link it to increases in school readiness for primary school, and it has been shown that school readiness is an important predictor of early school achievement (Forget-Dubois et al 2007). One review of 36 studies of ECE effectiveness in small-scale demonstration and large-scale public programs—each study comparing participants with a control group of non-participants—finds \”overwhelming evidence that ECCE can produce sizable improvements in school success.\” (Barnett 1995, pg. 40)Further, early gains in school readiness due to early childhood education have been shown to have enormous positive economic and social impacts lasting well into adulthood, from higher educational attainment and less chance of involvement in criminal activity, to higher status employment and higher earnings (Schweinhart 2007; Sparling, Ramey and Ramey 2007). James Heckman, Nobel laureate in economics from the University of Chicago, reviewed the literature and found that the long-term, economic return on investment in high-quality Early Childhood Education programs is more than 8 to 1 (Heckman 2000). Summarizing the few longitudinal studies and many short-term studies of ECE interventions, Heckman argues the important lesson to take away from successful early childhood interventions is that social skills and motivation are a young child\’s most easily life-altered attributes, even more so than IQ. Further, social skills and motivation have large impacts on school performance. In his view, a student with strong social skills and motivation tends to acquire a higher level of education. Then, with all three attributes (social skills, motivation and education), the individual becomes highly valuable in the work place. Heckman concludes, \”We cannot afford to postpone investing in children until they become adults, nor can we wait until they reach school age—a time when it may be too late to intervene. Learning is a dynamic process and is most effective when it begins at a young age and continues through to adulthood.\” (Heckman 2000, pg. 50) A good quality early childhood education program should be a multi-dimensional educational program with a focus on the holistic development of children in the early stages of their childhood and have the following characteristics: • it should be built around a good learning environment with an effective, well-thought out curriculum; • it should begin at an appropriate starting age; it should be provided in a physical space that is safe and one that has certain specialized facilities; • it should be given by professional care givers, attentive to the individualized needs and progress of the child, and, if possible, it should include the involvement of parents. \”While no single curriculum or pedagogical approach can be identified as best, children who attend well-planned, high-quality ECE programs in which the curriculum aims are specified and integrated across domains tend to learn more and are better prepared to master the complex demands of formal schooling.\” (Bowman, Donovan and Burns 2001, p. 7-8 I strongly believe that early childhood education is important because if the needs of children are not met in the earlier years of life, it leads to behavioral problems and various other physical and mental disabilities in later life. Childhood education being holistic focuses on the intellectual, social, emotional and physical development of children which is of utmost importance for the sound growth of children. Early childhood education encourages aesthetic appreciation. It also encourages independence and creativity by providing the child with sufficient opportunities for self-expansion. Childhood lays the foundation for adulthood. The seeds are sown during childhood. The adult only harvests what has been sown. It is very important to sow the right seeds during the early childhood stage. Our children are our future leaders. The health, welfare, and growth of any country will depend upon the young minds that are currently being shaped. Without early childhood education programs, the children who benefit the most from them may lose opportunities to realize their greatest potential in life.

Brief Biodata of Presenter:

Remediana Dias is the Chairperson of Vision Education Society, Goa, India. http://dyslexiagoa.wordpress.com She is a Dyslexia Specialist by qualification. She began her teaching career in 1995 as a Special Educator in Holy Childhood Special School, Goa. With over 12 years of teaching experience in different parts of the world, she decided to start her own NGO in 2009 to train teachers in handling pupils with dyslexia and help pupils with learning difficulties. She regularly contributes various articles on Special Educational Needs to magazines.

WES 2012 :: Inquiry Learning Projects: Organizing Themes and Sample Units for Philippine Progressive Schools

WES Track: School Track

Title of Paper: Inquiry Learning Projects: Organizing Themes and Sample Units for Philippine Progressive Schools
Author Name: Juliet Aleta Villanueva
Email: j.aleta.villanueva@upou.edu.ph
Organization: University of the Philippine Open University
Address:  AA5 Unit 203 Hardin ng Rosas UP Campus Diliman QC, Quezon City. 110, Philippines


Coherent inquiry learning happens through projects with organizing themes and concepts which make for meaningful teaching with and learning among children. This paper presents the organizing themes of the Builders\’ School, a small progressive school in the Philippines. The organizing themes were inspired by UNESCO\’s Four Pillars of Learning which allows for learning projects attuned to Philippine History, Culture and Global Citizenship. Chosen learning projects are identified across the grades, with big ideas and key concepts to make learning to learn skills happen through a cycle of inquiry. The paper shall briefly trace the roots of the key features of the school program and how the progressive philosophy provides a solid foundation for innovative approaches such as inquiry and project based learning. It presents sample learning projects implemented among the primary and upper gradeschoolers at the Builders\’ School. The study provides a framework through which other local schools in the Philippines can do project based learning with topics suited to the context of Filipino learners.

Brief Biodata of Presenter:

Aleta is an Assistant Professor at the University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU), handling online courses with the Faculty of Education. She is also Program Chair of the Associate in Arts Degree at UPOU. Aleta has been a gradeschool teacher most of her life and a co-founder of the Builders\’ School, a small progressive school in the Philippines. As curriculum consultant, she crafts Social Studies inquiry learning projects, and handles online and curriculum documentation. Aleta earned her Bachelor of Elementary Education and Masters in Community Development at the University of the Philippines and is now pursuing a doctoral degree in Curriculum Studies. Her current research interests are: curriculum integration and inquiry learning, K-12 hybrid schools, virtual communities and platforms for blended online teaching and learning.

WES 2012 :: Rethinking of Management Education: A Necessity to Evolve a Perfect Match for Supply and Demand

WES Track: Higher Eduaction

Title of Paper: Rethinking of Management Education: A Necessity to Evolve a Perfect Match for Supply and Demand
Author Name: Dr. Jesiah Selvam
Email: sjesiah@yahoo.com
Organization: Department of Management Studies, Francis Xavier Engineering College
Address: Francis Xavier Engineering College, Vannarpettai, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, 627003, India


Management education has become a major role player catering to diversified needs of economic growth in the light of globalization. Management education per se all over the world has facilitated economic growth to a great extent by producing talented managerial professionals from Business Schools. Nonetheless, the quality and content of management education have been quizzed by corporate business houses. Due to globalization and the changing scenario, the need to further strengthen the overall quality of management education contributing for all sectors is undoubtedly the highest priority. A holistic approach on management education has become indispensable in order to build up the capable manpower meeting successfully the challenges of the new order of business world. The need of the hour is that all B-schools diversify not only their programmes to match the current needs, but also make rapid strides in terms of qualitative improvements in the area of social and economic entrepreneurship, corporate social responsibility and then disseminate knowledge and delivery system. It would be achieved if the government and private players rethink and rejuvenate the present set-up of management education. The presently used conditions for eligibility of admissions, teaching and learning process, magnitude of industry-institute interface, recruitment and selection of faculty members, formation of intellectual capital and evaluation system requires changes for further complete improvement. This paper encompasses the expected components rethinking and defining altogether a new system of management education that supplies highly employable and dynamic human resources befitting the demand of the most complex and fast growing business.

Brief Biodata of Presenter:

Dr. Jesiah Selvam, who is Professor and Dean in Department of Management Studies, Francis Xavier Engineering College, served as Director in Indian Academy School of Management Studies(IASMS), Bangalore. Previously he served for the various higher education institutions and Universities abroad under UNDP Projects. He published many articles in the internationally an nationally reputed journals including “Economic Reforms and its Impacts in Ethiopia” published in African Development Review, Blackwell publishers, Oxford. His book on “Privatisation of Public Sector Undertakings: Experimentation Abroad” has been kept in Parliament library as one of the reference books for policy makers. He is a member of Board of Examination, Bangalore University and a member of Board of Examination for Doctoral degrees in various universities. One of his Research Papers on “Response of Higher Education to Globalization: Empirical Evidences from India, Journal of Educational Planning and Administration” has hit Top Ten Papers for Journal of Labour: Human Capital and for Journal of ERN: Government Expenditure and Education, Social Science Research Network(SSRN). Above all Dr. Selvam is the Chief Editor for Indian Journal of International Business, an Editor in the International Journal of Quantitative Techniques and Development Research and a member of Editorial Board of International Journal of Poverty, Development and Growth.


Title of Paper: INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF ACADEMIC STANDARDS (Engineering & Technology)
Author Name: Dr. R. KRISHNA MURTHY
Email: dr_rkm@yahoo.com

Designation:Retired Joint Director of Technical Education
Organization: Directorate of Technical Education, Karnataka
Address:  No. 53, 3rd Main, 1st Cross,
Ramanjaneya Nagara, Chikkalasandra

Upload profile pic:http://wes.eletsonline.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/02-Profile-Pic.jpg


INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF ACADEMIC STANDARDS IN HIGHER EDUCATION (Engineering & Technology) R. Krishna Murthy ABSTRACT The growth of engineering and technology education globally is phenomenal especially in the last decade. The number of institutions and programmes that are offered has simply multiplied beyond comprehension and bears testimony. All over the world the universities and autonomous institutions seems to be vying with each as if they are in competition to offer programmes in tune with latest developments with attractive titles. On the other hand the accreditation bodies are busy articulating the policies, procedures and practices to achieve quality in higher education. A study of the approved programmes and curricula offered around the world instantly conveys a message that there is a dire need to standardize the same. The task is stupendous and requires the active cooperation of all countries and universities to join hands towards creation of a global order in the system for the benefit and satisfaction of all stake holders. Like wise the accreditation. An idea of “International Bureau of Academic Standards in Higher Education (Engineering & Technology) is mooted. The body to encompass all activities ranging from lying down the international norms and standards; infrastructure, human resource, the programme and curricula and also of accreditation practices. The standardization is akin to a language that every body speaks and means the same thing and understands. Has scope for highest creativity and is not a stereotyping exercise. One of the task concerning the programme and curricula for the Bureau is to catalogue the entire UG programmes offered all over the globe, standardize and code them. Similarly, entire gamut of the courses to be catalogued, standardized and coded in the groups of; basic, mathematics, prerequisites (including inter disciplinary), professional core, electives, and advanced courses. This will; pave the way for all universities to design a programme and its curricula listing the bureau code along with their own that will go to establish the equivalence instantly. This will also help the students opting for reading programmes to establish its global equivalence. Next step will be to identify the main fields or programmes for award of degrees and define the variants under each as programme streams which alone are mentioned in the degree certificates. Naturally this will limit the degrees to the main programmes, a practice in existence in IITs’. The various bodies have to affiliate, approve and accredit individual programme streams instead. This calls for amendments in rules and regulations. At the national level the approval or regulatory bodies to establish a “National Bureau of Academic Standards” wing for monitoring and adoption of global standards. This will pave the way for much desired international mobility through equivalence and practices. Like ISO and the national standards bodies which are involved in laying down product specification, manufacturing processes, performance characteristics / requirements, testing and evaluation methods, calibration and application of corrections, the IBAS (E&T) should do it for the programmes. The bureau to span to curriculum research and development activities in a big way to evolve a scientific base for the curriculum design which is generic in approach and leads to universal application irrespective of the fields. Only the quantum of generic content only has to be decided upon to arrive at the desired programme curricula. The generic content comprises of source, storage, transmission / transportation / conveying, transforming, conversion, control / limiting, application and resources (material, men and money). The paper elaborates on the generic approach. For illustration of standardization the AICTE listing of 210 UG degree programmes in its latest approval process hand book 2012-13 is take-up. A close scrutiny of the list makes one to naturally think of identifying the main engineering areas and group others under each. The serial numbers as per the AICTE list of UG programmes BE Degree in Electronics & Comm. Engineering BE Degree in Computer Science & Engineering 8.* Applied Electronics and Instrumentation Engg 39* Computer and Communication Engineering 9. Applied Electronics & Telecommunications Engg 40. Computer Engineering 17. Biomedical Instrumentation 41. Computer Engineering and Application 37. Communications Engineering 42. Computer Engineering. (Ind./Int.) 73. Electronics 43. Computer Networking 74. Electronics and Avionics 44. Computer Science 75. Electronics and Communication Engineering 45. Computer Science and Engineering 76. Electronics & Comm. Engg (Industry Integrated) 46. Computer Science and Technology 77. Electronics & Comm. Engg (Industry Integrated) 48. Computer Science and Systems Engineering 78. Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering 49. Computer Technology 79. Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering 50. Computing in Computing 81. Electronics & Comm. Engg (Microwaves) 51. Computing in Multimedia 83. Electronics and Communications Engineering 52. Computing in Software 84. Electronics and Computer Engineering 85. Electronics and Control Systems BE Degree in Information Science & Engineering 87. Electronics and Information Systems 47. Computer Science and Information Technology 90. Electronics and Telematics Engineering 123. Information Engineering 91. Electronics Comm. & Instrumentation Engg 124. Information Science and Engineering 92. Electronics Design Technology 125. Information Science and Technology 93. Electronics Engineering 126. Information Technology 94. Electronics Instrument and Control 127. Information Technology and Engineering 96. Electronics Tele Communication 118. Industrial Electronics BE Degree in Instrumentation Technology Engineering 122. Information and Communication Technology 128. Instrument Technology 155. Mechatronics 129. Instrumentation 156. Medical Electronics Engineering 130. Instrumentation and Control 16. Biomedical Engineering 131. Instrumentation and Control Engineering 157. Medical Electronics 132. Instrumentation Engineering 202. Telecommunication Engineering 133. Instrumentation Technology 210. VLSI System Design 80. Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering (Technologynician Electronic Radio) This is just a representative list 158. Medical Lab Technology Observations: 1. The government agencies have Cadre and Recruitment rules for appointments where in the recognized qualifications for each department are listed. A modification to the list is a long drawn process and is difficult. The applications with degrees beyond are liable for rejection 2. Establishing equivalence of programme or of course for mobility is not automatic. 3. It will be better to expand the list of basic programmes of Civil, Mechanical and Electrical in a scientific way. Electronics and Communication Engineering qualifies as 4th basic programme followed by, Computer Science and Engineering and others. 4. Here again a generic approach for classifying the programmes will help. The generic fields of engineering are; mass, energy and information. 5. The generic approach both in curricula and programme will lead to a knowledge matrix and guide in creation of many new knowledge. 6. The knowledge and knowledge areas are almost exploding, it is high time that a systematic approach is evolved for ordering the higher education system at least in engineering and technology. NOTE: One has to decide on core curricula and manage these variants through electives and advanced topics. If keen on having the degree awarded, it should be treated as a stream and mention in the degree certificate as is the practice in IITs’. The Curriculum Research and Development centre to closely scrutinize the contents, books prescribed and decide on the appropriateness of the programme title. Example: terms engineering and technology are used as synonyms and no need to award two degrees. Dr. R. Krishna Murthy

Brief Biodata of Presenter:

Dr. R. Krishna Murthy Retired Joint Director of Technical Education DTE, Karnataka Was Faculty, Principal at Government BDT College of Engineering, Davangere, and retired as Joint Director of Technical Education, Karnataka. Attended short-term courses, seminars and conferences, published papers in National and International journals. Had training at NIEPA, New Delhi, Administrative Training Institute, Mysore, attended seminars / workshops on ISO, NAAC and NBA. Instrumental in establishing the CET Cell system for admission to professional colleges in Karnataka, worked on many Committees of Government, Universities (Mysore and Kuvempu) and AICTE. Was Member; State High Power Committees for fixing intake for Engineering Colleges and Chairman Polytechnics (1989-91) in Karnataka. Did costing for State level Committee (1993) for fixing the ceiling on fee for Engineering Colleges in Karnataka,


WES 2012 :: Plagiarism in Higher Education: What can be done?

WES Track: Higher Education Track

Title of Paper: Plagiarism in Higher Education: What can be done?
Author Name: Dr. Kuldeep Nagi
Email: kuldeepn@hotmail.com
Organization: Assumption University
Address:  Huamak, Bangkok, Huamak. 10240, Thailand


Plagiarism is in the news every day. The mere thought of plagiarism makes students in universities very nervous. Many studies done in USA indicate that cheating is pervasive in many university courses. In one instance at the end of the semester 2010, 22 out of the 108 students enrolled in a class had admitted plagiarizing. Some might read that statistic and celebrate the effectiveness of Turnitin, a popular service that takes uploaded student papers and checks them against various databases to pinpoint unoriginal content. “Forget about cheating detection,” one faculty said in an interview. “It is a losing battle.” Collectively, those teaching English language courses in many ASIA and especially in Indian universities are also obsessed with plagiarism. However, there is a fundamental flaw in applying Western plagiarism rules to student studying in Asian universities. One of the major differences between the West and ASIA countries is that people in Asia are largely multilingual. English is not necessarily their mother tongue. It is also not taught in many schools outside the big cities. In many Asian countries English is also not necessarily the medium of instruction in elementary, middle and high schools. After graduating from high schools many students get admissions in public and private universities where English language is introduced as a part of their new academic life. Hence all of this preoccupation with plagiarism does little to help us answer the fundamental question: Knowing very well that English is not the first language of students what can the faculty members in Asian universities do about it? For this paper, term papers (TP) of students admitted into several IT courses in a Masters Degree program in a local Thai university were uploaded into Turnitin for checking. The data indicated that in more than 80% of the cases the students used information available on the Internet. In more than 50% of the cases they did not even bother to cite the sources. This paper also provides some remedies to solve the problems of plagiarism in higher education.

Brief Biodata of Presenter:

I was born and educated in India but matured and flourished in Seattle, WA, USA. I am an American citizen and recipient of Fulbright Fellowship Award-2006 in USA to work at Assumption University, Thailand. While working in Seattle Community College District (SCCD) in USA I also received Dan Evans Award for Excellence in Teaching. I worked as ICT faculty in SCCD for 10 years. I also worked as Microsoft & Cisco Technology Consultant in Seattle WA, USA for more than 10 years. Now I am working for College of Internet Distance Education (CIDE) at Assumption University, Thailand. After joining Assumption University in Thailand in 2006 I have written about 15 papers for IEEE and other international conferences. I was born and educated in India but matured and flourished in Seattle, WA, USA. I am an American citizen and recipient of Fulbright Fellowship Award-2006 in USA to work at Assumption University, Thailand. While working in Seattle Community College District (SCCD) in USA I also received Dan Evans Award for Excellence in Teaching. I worked as ICT faculty in SCCD for 10 years. I also worked as Microsoft & Cisco Technology Consultant in Seattle WA, USA for more than 10 years. Now I am working for College of Internet Distance Education (CIDE) at Assumption University, Thailand. After joining Assumption University in Thailand in 2006 I have written about 15 papers for IEEE and other international conferences. AWARDS: 1. 2006 Fulbright Scholar Award (1-year) from Council of International Exchange of Scholars) CIES, Washington D.C. USA. to work at Assumption University 2. 2006 Dan Evans Award for Excellence in Teaching, SCCD, Seattle, WA, USA

Other Details:

In the last 34 years I have presented and published about 20 papers. In the past I also have participated twice in eIndia conferences held in Delhi. Examples of 3 papers published in 2011 are listed below: xLearning- a new paradigm of on-line learning presented at IEEE sponsored SUSHER conference held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, June 3-5, 2011 Quality Assurance (QA) in On-Line Learning Courses-A Case Study Presented at NIDA, Bangkok in the International Conference for Case Studies on Development Administration held on September 8-9, 2011 Interdisciplinary Research in eLearning- Exploring New Knowledge Domains Presented at INRIT-2011 organized by the Interdisciplinary Network of the Royal Institute of Thailand Under the Royal Patronage of HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn and Supported by Thailand Chapter of the Internet Society, Bangkok, May 31-June1, 2011